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Maintenance Guide of the Private Pool

POLYESTER POOL

1. When to build a pool?

2. Your pool must be:

WATER FILTRATION

3. Choosing a water filtration system

4. What does water circulation mean

5. What kind of filter should we use?

6. What is the pump and how we choose one for the pool

WATER TREATMENT

8. pH (per Hydron)

9. TH ((Hydrotrimetric Title)

10. TAC (Complete Alkalimetric Titre)

11. Pool water treatment with CHLORIDE

12. Pool water treatment with BROMINE

13. Salt electrolysis

14. Copper-silver electrolysis

15. Water sterilization through UV rays

16. Water treatment with ozone

17. Water treatment with PHMB (Polymer of HexaMethylene Biguanide)

18. Pool water treatment with active oxygen

19. Pool water treatment with algaecide

POLYESTER POOL



1. When to build a pool?

Choosing the time when to build a pool depends on the possibility of enjoying it the next season. Is essential to begin the arrangement in the fall season or in the early spring for a on time construction.

Why during the fall season? To have time for the arrangements and fitting up the surroundings of the pool before next summer.

The damp terrain it is easier to work with. More than that, all the involved factors and the contractors and pool manufacturers are busier with work in the springtime. Make sure you start your construction in autumn time to be prepared starting with the first nice days.

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2. Your pool must be:

  • On the sun: It is obvious, but we want to make sure you have it right. As long as the pool stays in the sun the more comfortable the temperature of the water will be.
  • Away from the wind: Avoid the drafty spots and the north wind passages. When you choose the location think about how wind can ruin a perfect sunny day.
  • On a flat terrain: Is always possible to put your pool on a slope, but the earthwork cost it is going to be higher. Is better to choose a perfect flat terrain to avoid slope instability and sliding due soil structure and texture, which is hard to control.
  • On a stable terrain: Pools are in principle solid structures, but one tiny fissure can be a serious problem. Before you make the arrangements, make sure the soil under the pool is stabile enough for a save placement of it and more important to avoid any shifts of the terrain under your pool.
  • On a very well drained terrain: The draining is very important when you make the arrangements of the location. If the draining is defective your pool is going to be pull up same as a champagne cap under the pressure.
  • A good draining is very important to absorb the waters in case of a flood.
  • Far away from the trees: The enemy of a clean pool is the leaves of a tree and everything that comes with them: birds and unwanted insects.
  • Visible from you house: It is always nice even in the wintertime to pleasure you eyes with a pool view. A pool with a good location has to improve the landscape.
  • Away from the indiscreet looks: To swim is a pleasure, which we don’t want to share with the neighbors. For maxim privacy choose a location bordered by a high fence or behind a bushy barrier line.

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WATER FILTRATION



3. Choosing a water filtration system

When you choose a pool model, few systems of water filtration will be brought to your attention. There are 2 main filtration systems on the market.

  1. The traditional filtration, which is based on a complete hose system, filters (sand, receptacle, diatomite) pumps and a technique local.
  2. One-piece filtration, which gets attached to the edge of the pool.

Traditional filtration is based on proper circulation of water.

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4. What does water circulation mean

A good filtration it is based on a good circulation of water. There are different types of the water circulation. For choosing the right formula we have to trust the pool manufacturer. Taking in consideration the size and the shape of your pool he is going to know to define the right technique to fit your pool's needs.

It is good to know that the water of a pool circulates after a classic diagram: it is aspirated through few water nuzzles, which includes: skimmer, socket vacuum, insertion connecting pieces and drain trap. Once aspirated by a pump, the water goes through the filter to remove impurities before getting into the pool. A skimmer and two insertion-connecting pieces are enough to assure a good circulation of water.

Another important issue that it has to be taken in consideration is the location of the aspiration pieces and reintroduction of water. Depending on the pool's shape, circulation of water has to be stimulated to prevent stationary areas favorable for impurities accumulation.

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5. What kind of filter should we use?

There are a lot of filtration techniques, which use the same number of filtration systems.

  • Sand Filter: is a tub full of sand, which filters the water that goes through it. The cleansing of the water is made through orienting the water against the current. This technique has an major inconvenient: it generates an important amount of water and forces to place a junction to each drain orifice. The filtration can eliminate the 40microns particles.
  • The disposable filter: is a filtration pocket with multiple layers, which has to be replaced with a new one when it gets dirty. It is a very economical solution and very simple.
  • The Filter with receptacle: The water circulates through a receptacle that has a pleated permeable membrane to retain impurities. This filtration system is very economical, the receptacle having a lifetime of 4-5 years. The only inconvenient is the fact that it has to be cleaned very often with a jet of water. The filtration is very fine, holding the 20microns particles.
  • The filter with diatomite: is the most elaborate system, the most reliable one, but also the most expensive. The water gets filtrated through a honeycomb sedimentary rock primarily composed of the fossilized remains of unicellular fresh water plants known as diatomite.

The concept of one-piece unitary filtration was launched in 1983. The unitary filtration replaces the hose network, the filter, the pump and the technical local of the traditional installations.

It is formed by a complete block, a filter (often with a receptacle for a better filtration), a pump, a skimmer and a introduction system. The compact block is placed at the level of the tiles and part under the level of water.

Are available few models depending on the size of the pool and the volume of water. The difference between these few models is made by the power of the pump. The last generation of unitary block is commercialized under the name of filtration wall.

Easy to install: Is enough to connect the system to electricity after was installed on the edge of the pool. There is no need for hoses and technical local.

Economical cost: The prices for this system oscillate between 1500 and 2000 Euro for the smallest models (for on-ground pools) and over 6000 Euro for complex models with more options (e.g. swimming against current). Receptacle has to be change every 2 years.

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6. What is the pump and how we choose one for the pool

The pump has the duty to circulate water. It puts the water to move to be permanent filtered. The water gets aspired through different water nozzle (skimmers, aspiration nozzle), which force it to go through a filter and reintroduce through the induction nozzles.

The pool's pumps are auto-on after pre-filter loading. All of them are made to have a powerful debit on a low pressure. All have a pre-filter to retain the big impurities. Depending on the model are mono-phased or three-phased.

The main criteria to determinate the power of your pump is:

  • The water volume of your pool: we estimate the total amount of water has to be filtrated in maxim 6 hours. To determinate the debit of the pump, have to divide the water volume of the pool at 6. A 52m3 needs a pump with an 8.6m3/h debit.
  • The distance between the technical place and the pool: the bigger the distance the more effort the pump had to make and it has to be more complex.
  • Hose diameter: the bigger it is the better the pump works. A criteria for raising or lower de diameter is the number of the elbow connectors, which make the water go with a lower speed.
  • The technical characteristics of the filter: the pump gets adapted to the model of the filter (sand, receptacle etc.)
  • The number of introduction nozzles and water intakes orifices

As a general rule the calibration of the pump is made depending on the water volume plus 20%. (e.g. for 52m3 we need 8.6m3/h+1.72m3/h = 10.5 m3/h).

If the pool is accessorized with water jets, waterfalls etc., the calibration has to be made according to them.

It is good to know that choosing a good pump is essential for a better water circulation. Trust your manufacturer to have your pump calibrated to your pool needs.

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WATER TREATMENT



To have a clean and nice water for swimming, the water has to have a balanced pH (per hydron), TH (Hydrotrimetric Title) and CAT (Complete Alkalimetric Titre).

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8. pH (per Hydron)

The scale of pH is graded from 2 to 12 and it measures the water acidity or basify. The higher the pH is, the more is considered as a base. In a swimming pool the optimal pH for neutral water is situated between 7 and 7.5. If the pH is higher then 7.6 it has to be under supervision because the water treatment products become inefficient, the water loses the salubrity and becomes corrosive for skin and also for metal elements. There are a number of factors, which affect the variation of pH and a periodical verification is very important with an automatic tester that has a system named ph regulator, which tests and rectify the levels depending on the case with plus pH or minus pH.

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9. TH ((Hydrotrimetric Title)

The TH is the content of water in ions of calcium and magnesium expressed on a scale from 0 to 45 degrees. It is better known under the name of ‘hardness’. At 0 degrees the water is soft at 45 degrees the water is considered calcareous. If the TH is higher then 25 degrees the water is limestone depositor. To remain under 25 degrees and therefore to maintain the installation limestone free and in good condition a hardness stabilizer is used. Soft water is in general acid (the pH is higher than 7), corrosive, and the hard water has a pH lower then 7.

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10. TAC (Complete Alkalimetric Titre)

The CAT is the bicarbonate ions and carbonate content of water express on a scale from 0 degrees (soft water) to 30 degrees (alkaline water).It is better known under the name of "alkalinity". The CAT grade indicates its power, the capacity to absorb pH variations. The ideal value of CAT is higher than 10 degrees.

If we could see, the three elements that determine the quality of water are independent. For maintain a balanced pH there are few chemical treatment solution, but before choosing one of them is important to know that the water has to be under permanent check up. For pH testing there are few systems to do that. The most frequent used is the tester which has to be kept in the water for several seconds. Depending of the color of the tester it will be necessary to lower or raise the pH. On the market we also can find automatic devices that are more practical to use. A simple visual exam permits the evaluation of the water and other quality parameters without other aids, such as the clarity, the state of the pool cover system.

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11. Pool water treatment with CHLORIDE

Chloride: is the most used product in the chemical treatment of the familial pools. This disinfectant is very efficient which attracts bacteria, fungus, organic remains brought to the water by the people that use the pool. Another big advantage of chloride is its property to be active in the water a long time. It purifies water and destroys all the germs that get in the water. To this fact adds up the properties of a good algaecide as a prevention use.
The long term treatment is the current treatment. Chloride is placed in the skimmer or in a chlorinator to get dissolved slowly.
It is packed in a unique dose as a tablet. The chlorine that last a long time it is also known as slow chlorine.
The shock treatment: is a curative treatment when the water changes its appearance and it is invaded of algae or when the pool gets back in function in the springtime. This treatment has the goal to sterilize (the shock chlorine gets dissolved very fast).
Warning: chlorine products are very dangerous and they do not have to be left at the reach of children during of their usage and they have to be used in conformation with the label instructions.

Benefits

  • Very cheap: one tablet a week is placed in the skimmer and is enough for disinfection of a pool. This treatment is the most advantageous on the market.
  • Easy to use: the tablets with unique dosage are very practical and have a complete action on all germs. As permanent utilization, chloride is a good algaecide.

Limits

  • Irritating for skin: the main disadvantage of the chloride is the fact that can be aggressive for skin and mucous membranes. Some people are allergic to it and the smell can be very irritating.
  • Needs a stabilizer: to preserve its disinfectant qualities in time, chlorine has to be associated with a stabilizer.

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12. Pool water treatment with BROMINE

The same as chloride, bromine is a powerful disinfectant on a high pH. Without any irritant effects and odorless its application is more expensive than the chlorine. Purify the water instantly and destroys bacteria, viruses, fungus, organic remains brought by the swimmers or from the surrounding area. The same as chlorine, bromine stays in the water a long period of time. This fact adds the properties very good of algaecide as a preventive usage.
Bromine can be used instead or combined with the chlorine.
Another characteristic of bromine is the fact that is more efficient in warm to hot waters. Its also used in spas, heat up pools or pools that stay in the sun a long time.
The long term treatment: is the current treatment. Bromine is placed in a brome recipient where it gets dissolved slowly. It is dosed in tablets or pills as a unique dose.
The shock treatment: is a curative treatment when the water changes its appearance and it is invaded of algae or when the pool gets back in function in the springtime. This treatment has the goal to sterilize before the long term treatment.
Warning: chlorine products are very dangerous and they do not have to be left at the reach of children during of their usage and they have to be used in conformation with the label instructions.

Benefits

  • Gentle and inodorous: Bromine permits obtaining perfectly disinfected water without any irritating effect.
  • Easy to use: the unique dosage tablets are very practical and have a complete against all germs. As permanent utilization bromine is also a good algaecide. More than that, bromine does not need stabilizer.
  • Efficient at high temperature: is one of the particularities of bromine what explains why the product is more used in location as spas.

Limits

  • Expensive: bromine is more comfortable than the chlorine, but is very expensive to be used in a regular basis.

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13. Salt electrolysis

The salt electrolysis is an ecological alternative to chlorine treatment. Salt electrolysis is a natural chemical reaction. It functions very easily thanks to a cell installed on the filtration circuit (the electrolyte).
On water contact slat instantly transforms in sodium hypochlorite, known as natural chlorine, which destroys, like the chemical one, algae and germs with a high efficiency, before changes back in salt. Salt electrolysis is a perpetual cycle.
To be efficient 5 g of salt to one liter of water that has be treated. For a 50m3 pools, 250 of salt is needed. The treated water will be light salted (15 times less then the sea water). The salt gets in the pool water at one time as tablets. A new periodical recharge is needed in case the weather is very hot an amount of water gets natural evaporated. The same thing has to be done in case of abundant rains when the volume of the water will grow. On a regular used pool a complementation with salt of 10% is needed every year.

Benefits

  • A natural procedure: the water treat with salt is very healthy, without the adding any other chemical product. Once salty the water gets treated itself.
  • Inexpensive: the salt electrolysis requires a medium investment at the beginning, but after that the cost of the treatment is insignificant.
  • For all pools: because is easy to administer directly to the filtration system the salt electrolysis get adapted to all pool types.

Limits

  • The water is salty: the pool water its going to be saltier then usual, but less salty then sea water.
  • The pH has to be supervised: the chemical reaction of the electrolysis generates soda which acts directly on the pH. A regular supervising is necessary to preserve a water balance. Most of the time the process of salt electrolysis is associated to automatic adjustment device of the pH connected to a –pH or +pH can that automatic generates the adjustment of the pH.

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14. Copper-silver electrolysis

Copper-silver electrolysis is based on a procedure named electro physics. The procedure consists in a device named ionizer.
This system gets installed on the filtration system between the sand filter and the water return. It is Copper-silver electrolytes assemble which is under a continuous low voltage and a microprocessor that controls the water content of ions. In contact with water the electrolytes produce copper hydroid depending of the needs, also the emission of copper and silver ions.
For an optimal efficacy the system needs to add the oxidant product in the pool water to neutralize natural oils of skins and the sun care creams. The Copper-silver ionizer can be used in association with a small amount of chlorine.

Benefits

  • A natural procedure: the chemical reaction is in natural in totality. The ionizer permits a decrease of chlorine utilization by 90%.
  • Efficient for waters with high pH: The Copper-silver electrolysis has a constant efficiency in purifying the water, even when the pH is very high, while chlorine loses efficiency when the pH is higher then 8.
  • Inexpensive and practical: Copper-silver electrolysis requires an inexpensive investment at the beginning (aquisition of an ioniser); instalation is quite simple.
  • For all pools: this procedure gets installed to all familial pools directly on the filtration system.

Limits

  • It needs an oxidant: for the disinfection action to be total, is indispensabil to add an oxidant product or a small amount of chlorine.
  • In case of high pH copper ions get deposited and stain the liner.

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15. Water sterilization through UV rays

Water sterilization through UV rays is a know technique since 1910. Applied to the familial pools has a high deficiency for water disinfection and is a 100% natural without adding the chlorine.
The treatment is made by a device called UV sterilizer which is installed on the filtration system, behind the filter. This device generates type C ultraviolet rays in a middle of a room where the water gets circulated in a small quantity. UV rays action right in the germs DNA hart, destroying them in totality. The system is efficient also getting rid of fungus, mold and algae.
The UV sterilizer is an assemble of few special lamps with mercury vapors placed in a device with quartz. The apparatus is connected to a control electric panel which generates automatic the lighting of the laps and the time of function. There are two types of lamps- with high pressure and low pressure- depending on the manufacturer. The replacement of the lamps has to be made every 8000 hours.
To not affecting the action of UV rays, type C, a good filtration is required, in this way the big particles do not screen the device.

Benefits

  • 100 % natural: the UV rays system action directly on germs without adding another chemical product.
  • 100% comfortable: the water treated without chlorine is inodorous and non-irritant; it is healthy in a natural way. The system generates automatic the disinfection without modifying the pH in any way. Once installed, the system does not require any other intervention, only the replacement of the lamps.
  • Economical and easy to use: the cost of the investment and maintenance are reasonable. There are no risks on dosage or other complication (using too much or too little product). This treatment can be used in combination with other treatments.

Limits

  • Rare product: This method is not too popular and is rarely used by the big manufacturers, the UV rays solution is very hard to procure.
  • Different products: For an optimal efficiency the treatment room has to meet the requirements for a 1 to 2 second expose depending on the germ resistance. The cheap products can be unreliable, before buying, compare!

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16. Water treatment with ozone

The ozone is an alternative to the chlorine treatment. Is a procedure used by a big number of people who love water. The treatment is made by a special device which transforms the oxygen (O2) in ozone (O3) breaking the oxygen molecule. Organic matter, bacteria, germs and viruses are instantly destroyed when they get in contact with ozone. At the end of the cycle the ozone gets transformed back into oxygen.
The Ozone device is installed on filtration system behind the filter and before the pump. The water is submissive under a pressure for getting the transformation of ozone into oxygen. The ozone air it is injected in a nozzle to get mixed into the water. The complete ozonification of water can be made in the recirculation flux direct or partial.

Benefits

  • Healthy crystalline water: a pool disinfected through this procedure has clean clear water, without irritating the skin, eyes or hair. This water can be compared with the spring water. This procedure is also used in industry, restaurants and this tells it all!
  • 100% natural: This procedure of transformation of oxygen in ozone is natural; this phenomenon appears during the storms. The germs are eliminated in an instant without any chemical products. It is used to disinfect fish ponds without any risk for the fish.
  • 100% automatic: the ozone device stays in function all the time. There is no need to verify the pH all the time.

Limits

  • A partial disinfection: unfortunately the ozone has a short life time (max. 30 minutes). The procedure is not that efficient as chemical treatments. For a total efficacy it is recommended to mix the ozone adding chlorine on regular bases.

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17. Water treatment with PHMB (Polymer of HexaMethylene Biguanide)

PHMB is the Polymer of HexaMethylene Biguanide. Its molecule is a derivate of an antiseptic: the biguanide is efficient in a particular way, being used for a long time to disinfect contact lens. Neutral and having a high stability, this molecule does not generate derivate elements which can bother, such as chloramines or stabilizer.
This type of chlorine free product fights against a large variety of germs and clears the water very efficiently. It is used usually alone or associated with an algaecide. Do Not use it with chlorine or bromine. If the pool was treated ante prior with this products is essential to use sodium thiosulfate which has as reaction elimination of chlorine molecules.

Benefits

  • 100% comfortable and nice: a disinfectant very powerful which has the particularity of not irritates the skin or eyes. The water has no taste or smell. It is nice and comfortable to the touch. It is the ideal solution for people that have chlorine allergies.
  • A record stability: the chemical structure of PHMB is very stable. It is resistant to UV and sudden variation of temperature and pH. It has a permanent efficacy in controlling germs.
  • Easy maintenance: because of its stability, PHMB offers permanent clean, pure and healthy water. The water is protected during a whole month. PHMB has an important characteristic which makes the disinfected water a disinfectant.

Limits

  • An expensive product: is more expensive because its complex formulation. Usually is used in big quantities, the people that uses the product are overdosing. This way the price is higher than for chlorine. The cleaning of the pool has to be done every three years.
  • A rare product: Because of its high price is hard to find.
  • Inefficient against algae: it does not have oxidation and algae properties. A pool treated with this product has to be treated also with hydrogen peroxide.
  • Incompatible with chorine and bromine: a pool treated prior with chlorine has to be cleaned of chlorine molecules.

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18. Pool water treatment with active oxygen

Peroxide is the ideal solution for all standard sized familial pools. This product is used the same as chlorine, but has neither smell nor irritating action. Active oxygen can be liquid or tablets which goes right in the pool water. This product permits a efficient disinfectant of the water also the oxidation of organic matter. Bacteria, fungus, viruses and algae are destroyed.
The substance remains active for 3 weeks. Active oxygen can be used alone or used in combination with other products as chlorine for a shock treatment after the winter time.

Benefits

  • 100% comfortable: active oxygen makes the water very comfortable and nice. It does not cause any irritation of mucous membranes or eyes, because the product is inodorous and insipid.
  • 100% ecological: Is used in cosmetic industry as a safe procedure, being based on a natural molecule. It has no incidence on pH.
  • 100% performant: active oxygen it proved its benefic effects. Eliminates all germs and kills algae.
  • 100% compatible: Not like PHMB which is incompatible with chlorine, usage of active oxygen is compatible with bromine and chlorine.

Limits

  • Does not adapt to high temperatures: It is its main vulnerable spot. The active oxygen does not resist to high temperatures. Is impossible to use it for spas.
  • Only for standard pools: The active oxygen is efficient only for standard volumes of water (60m3). The bigger pools have to be treated with another procedure.

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19. Pool water treatment with algaecide

Algaecides are used for prevention of algae and destruction of them when they appear.
They are efficient on few categories of algae:

  • Floating green algae, which turn the water green and leave the walls very slippery.
  • Yellow algae, which stick to the pool’s walls, especially on pools that are on location without sun. Coriacee are the pool’s owners worst enemies.
  • Black algae which gets build up in successive layers on the pool and get very resistant even to scrubbing and brushing.

It is good to know that most of the algae are destroyed by the chlorine, but some of them surviving the process and is needed to be use an algaecide, before they contaminate the whole pool.
The fight against algae is never over: they always come back. To limit the proliferation it is important to keep the pH lower then 7,4, but also to get the walls and the bottom of the pool thoroughly scrubbed and to clean the filtration system as often as possible.
There are two types of utilizations:

  • Prevention usage, when algaecide avoids proliferation of algae. The dosage is very low. When a algae infestation is installed the water stays clear, but the steps and the walls become slippery. If this occurs it is time for a shock therapy raising the algaecide dosage.
  • Curative usage: Algaecide kills all the present algae even after wintertime. The dosage is much higher being followed by a shock treatment with chlorine. Note: before treating the water with chlorine, bromine or algaecide the pool has to be entirely clean and its walls scrubbed. Once the products go into the water the filtration system has to work continuously till the water gets to an acceptable color.

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